Early Online (Volume - 9 | Issue - 2)

Difference in Injury Risk between Male and Female Alpine Skiers: Review of the Literature

Published on: 3rd April, 2024

Alpine skiing is popular at varying levels of competitiveness with many skiers participating recreationally and elite skiers competing in downhill, super-G, giant slalom, slalom, and combined events in the World Cup and in the Winter Olympic Games. The rate of injury in alpine skiing is high both recreationally and competitively and methods to reduce injury rates are needed. Additionally, it is well-established in other sports that the risk of injury for an athlete varies based on gender. The purpose of this review is to determine how injury risk differs for each gender of alpine skier. Injury rates vary throughout the literature but point towards males being at a higher risk for overall injury and upper body injuries while females are at a higher risk for knee injuries. Even the specific knee injuries for which each gender is at risk varies with medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries more common in males and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries more common in females. More studies are needed to confirm the differences in injury risks and how these risks may differ across levels of competition, thus allowing regulations and injury prevention methods that may be tailored specifically to the injuries an alpine skier is most susceptible to.
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The Comparison of Brachial Artery Parameters between the Clinical Cuff, Pneumatic Controlled Air Band (KAATSU), and Elastic Band during Blood Flow Restriction at the same Perceived Tightness

Published on: 30th April, 2024

The Blood Flow Restriction (BFR) technique is based on cuffs connected to a pressure device that induces partial arterial inflow. BFR combined with exercise has already been proven to increase strength, muscle mass, and muscular endurance. However, some BFR devices with pneumatic air bands, such as KAATSU (KA), are expensive and less accessible, making either a Sphygmomanometer Cuff (SC) or Elastic Band (EB) an interesting alternative. However, vascular parameters in response to blood flow restriction during KA, EB, and SC have not yet been compared. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the brachial blood flow behavior during restriction using bands such as KA, SC, and EB on the same perceived tightness. Methods: Thirty healthy men participated in a prospective crossover study. Participants underwent blood flow measurements before and during KA, SC, and EB use, with KA-perceived tightness taken as a reference. The brachial blood flow volume, the diameter of the artery, and blood flow velocity were measured before and immediately after the cuff’s inflation at a specific tightness. Results: Blood flow volume was significantly reduced in KA (52%, ES: 1.38), SC (61.7%, ES: 1.29), and EB (41.5%, ES: 1.22) (p
Cite this ArticleCrossMarkPublonsHarvard Library HOLLISGrowKudosResearchGateBase SearchOAI PMHAcademic MicrosoftScilitSemantic ScholarUniversite de ParisUW LibrariesSJSU King LibrarySJSU King LibraryNUS LibraryMcGillDET KGL BIBLiOTEKJCU DiscoveryUniversidad De LimaWorldCatVU on WorldCat
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